Smart City Graz
Graz is Austria's second largest city. With 1.1.2012 the number of inhabitants is 266.965 (main residence), corresponding to a population density of 2,058 ih/km². Together with surrounding communities, the number of inhabitants in the Graz region amounts to 405,000.
Over recent years there has been an increase in people actually present of approximately 1% per year. Reasons for the growth of the city and region of Graz are a positive increase in the number of births and a positive migration balance: in the years between 2004 and 2007, the city of Graz grew due to an increasing number of births and continuous migration into the city by 3,000 to 3,600 people per year.
Long-term trends also show a continuous growth of population in the city of Graz and communities in the urban hinterland: current predictions foresee an increase in population to approximately 490,000 by 2050 (districts of Graz and Graz surroundings).
The forecast dynamic population and economic growth development represents a special challenge for the development of the City of Graz.
Any expansion of the existing settlement area (building land) will only be pursued to a limited extent in line with the goals of reducing building and infrastructure land use and this area can only have a nominal role in providing for future residential and industrial plot requirements.
The focus here thus lies rather on the development areas in existing settlements (settlement focus), where the best in infrastructure provision is either already available or where this infrastructure is planned due to the favorable conditions.
Due to the location in a basin Graz has climatic disadvantages.
The protected location of the city allows no exchange of air particularly in Winter.
It can be seen that the emissions quantities for sulphur-dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been in a steep decline since 1995 when the total pollution emissions in the years between 1995 and 2001 are examined. Carbon dioxide emissions increased over the same period of observation by 29 %.
When the emissions sources are examined it can be seen that the greenhouse gas emissions derive in roughly equal portions (around 39% each) from the industrial/commercial sector and from households (with transport accounting for some 22%). Emissions of particulate fine dust PM 10 are at some 50% are very largely from transport, with the industrial/commercial sector responsible for 27 % and households 23 %.
Energy demand and supply
The final energy use for heating, hot water and cooking in the residential and service buildings of Graz was about 2,100 GWh in 2009 (this figure represents a portion of the total energy requirement for Graz). The main energy carriers for this are district heating (33 %), oil (some 25 %), electrical energy (some 20 %) and gas (some 15 %). Renewable energy carriers (biomass and other alternative energy carriers) have a share of slightly below 5 %. The remaining 2 % is covered by coal.
The share of motorised individual transport is the highest at more than one third, whilst evidence of a reduction of MIT has emerged for the first time since the beginning of the survey. Also evident is a continuous increase in the share of bicycles (from 8.3% in 1982 to 16.1% in 2008). During the period of observation, public transport shows a slight increase and is currently at 20 %.
The Smart City Graz Project checked existing causal relationships in the context of energyoptimised/ emission neutral urban development and introduced these by fields of action and at strategic levels into integrated planning guidelines, which will later flow in a suitable manner into the relevant City guideline planning and regulations.
Thematic content / technology areas covered:|
In the course of the "I live Graz" project, 7 + 1 indicators necessary for achieving a Smart City were recorded. In the action fields Economy, Society, Ecology, Mobility, Energy, Facility management (comprising supply and disposal), indicators were defined, and in the action field Urban planning, strategies for the future urban development of Graz towards a "zero emission" city were elaborated.
Vision developed until 2020 / 2050:|
2020: Graz has established itself as a "Smart City innovation technology and service center" with an international vocation and is evolving to become one of the top-ten medium-sized European cities.
Implementation of the target area Graz Mitte, the first Smart City urban quarter, has been concluded. Any action is orientated according to SC strategies, which serve as a general guideline. A special interrelation between cultural, business and scientific competences acts as a driving force for a dynamic, modern and creative development, as well as a basis of high urban quality of life.
2050: Graz has become a dynamic, prosperous and leading medium-sized European city, in which the highest quality of life has been achieved. Thanks to consistently pursuing Smart City strategies, awareness raising and active participation, the city has managed to reduce resource and energy consumption and pollutant emissions almost to Zero Emission City level. 100% of total energy required is produced by local renewable energy sources. As a research, quality and business location, Graz has become an international benchmark for value creation by means of urban technology.
In order to sort and apply urban development strategies and indicators, four strategic action levels were introduced on a local level: The city as a region ("CityRegion"), target areas, the quarter and buildings/projects.
Application of strategies, indicators and measures can thus be scaled according to "flying altitude". This ensures high-grade quality development, as well as quality assurance and monitoring measures.
On the overall city level, three Smart City target areas, (Grazer Messe (Graz fair), Mur (river) West, Graz Mitte (city centre), were defined as future zones of innovation for smart and sustainable urban development interventions.
In the action fields Economy, Society, Ecology, Mobility, Energy, Facility management, the aim is to define pilot projects for Graz, integrated according to the applicable strategic action level and implemented as agreed. This multi-project strategy could trigger a new era in urban development in Graz.
Besides economic and ecological sustainability indicators, social topics shall also be taken into account and dealt with, in order to have measures widely accepted by users. Social sustainability targets shall be achieved through an accompanying quarter management.
Action plan Target area Graz Mitte |
Elaboration and implementation of smart urban development strategies and processes:
Smart urban development
will be implemented on a conceptual level by steering the urban development and development process of the Graz Mitte target area on an interdisciplinary basis.
Civic participation in Smart City life
Regular information of specific target groups among the citizens of Graz, the establishment of a Smart City platform, quarter management, and e-participation are core elements.
Implementation of innovative financing models and resource-efficient business models.
In order to maintain SC quality criteria, urban development agreements will be concluded with potential investors/land owners.
Awareness raising, training and education
In cooperation with local initiatives, platforms and organizations, events, meetings, workshops, training courses and further education courses will be organized for various target groups.
Holistic approach and guiding principles/guidelines
The holistic perspective ensures that the necessary individual Smart City solutions are integrated into in a higher-ranking strategy. Starting from an as-is analysis of the target area, general target categories including urban development indicators will be defined by applying the 7+1 indicators.